Thursday, May 21, 2020
Chapman 1 Collin Chapman Ms.Coker Englich 18 April 2017 Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla was one of the most brilliant minds of the twentieth century. His father was a Serbian Orthodox Priest and his mother was highly intellegent (Hunt 1). If intelligence is genetic then his mother must have been where Nikola got his from. His father was most likely the one responsible for his modest and honest personality. Nikola Tesla changed the world by giving it Alternating current various other impactful technologies, but his name did not get the recognition he deserved. When Nikola finished college he traveled to different countries, gaining experience from his travels. Ã¢â¬Å"After studying at the Realschule, Karlstadt (later renamed theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It was not until 1887 he found some funding for his ideas and was invited to address the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1888 (History.com Staff 2). During this he peaked the interest of George Westinghouse, who hired Tesla shortly after this. Westinghouse was EdisonÃ¢â¬â¢s direct competitor at the time and Tesla proved to be quite the addition to his team. Ã¢â¬Å" Together, Tesla and Westinghouse lit the 1891 WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Columbian Exposition in Chicago and partnered with General Electric to install AC generators at Niagara Falls, creating the first modern power station,Ã¢â¬ (History.com Staff 3). And thus the alternating current/ direct current war had begun. Edison would do public stunts to scare the public into wanting his direct current like Ã¢â¬Å"Edison sometimes electrocuted animals at demonstrations,Ã¢â¬ (West 3). During such demonstrations he would use alternating current to show that it can be deadly, and Ã¢â¬Å"In 1889 Edison arranged for a convicted New York murderer to be put to death in an AC-powered electric chair,Ã¢â¬ (History.com Staff 3), giving birth to one of the most infamous utilities of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s judicial system the electric chair. Chapman 3 Tesla took a different stance in the war of AC/DC. Instead of attacking his rival with instilling the public with fears of the dangers of electricity he would defend his invention with demonstrations of safety and cost effective his version of the power system was. Ã¢â¬Å"Tesla responded by demonstrating
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
-+ Crazed Nature: Ecology in THE YELLOW WALL-PAPER Heidi Scott. The Explicator. Washington:Spring 2009. Vol. 67, Iss. 3, p. 198-203 (6 pp.) | Abstract (Summary) First the narrator sees only curves in the pattern, but then she finds they commit suicide by their motion, and soon she fills the curves with human features-two bulbous eyes (6) that have a vicious influence (7). [...] far she is resisting her surroundings, pitting herself against its energies and apart from the system of the room. Full Text (2182 words) | Copyright Heldref Publications Spring 2009 [Headnote] | KEYWORDS | dark ecology, ecocriticism, ecofeminism, evolutionary psychology, Charlotte Perkins Gilman | In her 1916 essay The NervousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(5) These things are sinister vestiges of ancestry in the natural history of this supposed nursery: barred windows and rings mounted on the wall are more evocative of imprisonment and even torture than they are of childrens recreation. Other signs of duress that emerge-the gnawed bedstead, the wallpaper that is stripped at arms length around the bed, the smooch of a shoulder rubbed round and round and round at the base of the wall-are all evidence of the behavior of the rooms earlier inhabitants and provide evidence of previous habitat adaption for the narrator to study. The feature that is most immediately provocative, and initially aversive, is the rooms wallpaper, which appears to grow in fetid ribbons. First the narrator sees only curves in the pattern, but then she finds they commit suicide by their motion, and soon she fills the curves with human features-two bulbous eyes (6) that have a vicious influence (7). Thus far she is resisting her surroundings, pitting herself against its energies and apart from the system of the room. She begins to heal, at least in the eyes of those who observe her and look for nervousness, when she lets her resistance melt into admiring analysis and begins the process of adaptation to the yellow environment. Her torpid brain is an irritated organ, but once she engages in the gymnastics of following the papers pattern her neuroses calm into studious activity. Her diary entries mark her increasingShow MoreRelatedThe Yellow Wallpaper829 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper first appeared in 1892 and became a notary piece of literature for it s historical and influential context. Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper was a first hand account of the oppression faced toward females and the mentally ill,whom were both shunned in society in the late 1890s. It is the story of an unnamed woman confined by her doctor-husband to an attic nursery with barred windows and a bolted down bed. Forbidden to writeRead More The yellow wallpaper619 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The plot of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ comes from a moderation of Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experience. In 1887, just two years after the birth of her first child, Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell diagnosed Gilman with neurasthenia, an emotional disorder characterized by fatigue and depression. Mitchell decided that the best prescription would be a Ã¢â¬Å"rest cureÃ¢â¬ . Mitchell encouraged Gilman to Ã¢â¬Å"Live a domestic l ife as far as possible,Ã¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"have two hoursÃ¢â¬â¢ intellectual lifeRead MoreYellow Wallpaper1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand treatments played in reinforcing the prevailing, male-dominant gender roles through the subversion, manipulation and degrading of female experience through the use of medical treatments and power structures. Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å" The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a perfect example of these themes. In writing this story, Charlotte Perkins Gilman drew upon her own personal experiences with hysteria. The adoption of the sick-role was a product of-and a reaction against gender norms and all of the pressuresRead MoreYellow Wallpaper1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSvetlana Kryzhanovskaya Prof. Grajeda ENC 3014-MidTerm Paper March 12, 2012 Structuralism amp; Feminist Theory Ã¢â¬ËThe Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Charlotte Gilman can be affectively analyzed from two schools of thought structuralism and feminist theory. Though structuralistsÃ¢â¬â¢ deny the work of literature any connection to its author (it must be what it is, no underlying meaning) feminist theory must first and foremost be understood in its historical framework. By the turn of the century,Read MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper3202 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesEnglish 1302 22 November 2011 Main CharacterÃ¢â¬â¢s Outsider Theme In Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , the narrator, Jane, is struggling to deal with her depression that she is suffering in a confined room that her husband, John put her in. John believes that this will cure Jane and make her better from her depression. Instead, Jane is slowly losing herself within the yellow wallpaper in the room causing her to become insane. Jane is not able to express her feelings with her husbandRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Charlotte Perkins Gilman Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is gothic psychological short story written in journal-style with first-person narrative. Other elements used in the story are symbols, irony, foreshadowing, and imagery. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper is about a woman who suffers from postpartum depression. Her husband, a physician, puts her on Ã¢â¬Å"rest cure of quiet and solitude.Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 278). This cure consisted of the narrator being confinedRead More The Yellow Wallpaper1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeminist socialist and a realist novelist capture moments that make their readers rethink life and the world surrounding. GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ was first published in 1892, about a white middle-class woman who was confined to an upstairs room by her husband and doctor, the roomÃ¢â¬â¢s wallpaper imprisons her and as well as liberates herself when she tears the wallpaper off at the end of the story. On the other hand, CraneÃ¢â ¬â¢s 1893 Maggie: A Girl of the Streets is the realist account of a New York girlRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Yellow Paper is a symbolic story written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. It is a disheartening tale of a woman struggling to free herself from postpartum depression. This story gives an account of an emotionally and intellectual deteriorated woman who is a wife and a mother who is struggling to break free from her metal prison and find peace. The post-partum depression forced her to look for a neurologist doctor who gives a rest cure. She was supposed to have a strict bed rest. The woman livedRead Moreyellow wallpaper1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ , Charlotte Perkins Gilman, talks about a woman who is newly married and is a mother who is in depression. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wall-PaperÃ¢â¬ is written as the secret journal of a woman who, failing to relish the joys of marriage and motherhood, is sentenced to a country rest cure. Though she longs to write, her husband - doctor forbid it. The narrator feels trapped by both her husband and surroundings. The woman she sees behind the wallpaper is a symbol of herself andRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper1844 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSarah Kreeger EngWr 301 Professor Bradford 21 July 2013 Short Story Analysis The Yellow Wallpaper: The Power of SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Views On the Care of Mental Patients Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman takes the form of journal entries of a woman undergoing treatment for postpartum depression. Her form of treatment is the Ã¢â¬Å"resting cure,Ã¢â¬ in which a person is isolated and put on bed rest. Her only social interaction is with her sister-in-law Jennie and her husband, John, who is also
string(133) " side was the sallow-faced, hook-nosed, greasy-haired Potions master, Snape Ã¢â¬â HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s least favorite person at Hogwarts\." Through the gates, flanked with statues of winged boars, and up the sweeping drive the carriages trundled, swaying dangerously in what was fast becoming a gale. Leaning against the window, Harry could see Hogwarts coming nearer, its many lighted windows blurred and shimmering behind the thick curtain of rain. Lightning flashed across the sky as their carriage came to a halt before the great oak front doors, which stood at the top of a flight of stone steps. We will write a custom essay sample on Chapter 12 Triwizard Tournament or any similar topic only for you Order Now People who had occupied the carriages in front were already hurrying up the stone steps into the castle. Harry, Ron, Hermione, and Neville jumped down from their carriage and dashed up the steps too, looking up only when they were safely inside the cavernous, torch-lit entrance hall, with its magnificent marble staircase. Ã¢â¬Å"Blimey,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, shaking his head and sending water everywhere, Ã¢â¬Å"if that keeps up the lakeÃ¢â¬â¢s going to overflow. IÃ¢â¬â¢m soak Ã¢â¬â ARRGH!Ã¢â¬ A large, red, water-filled balloon had dropped from out of the ceiling onto RonÃ¢â¬â¢s head and exploded. Drenched and sputtering, Ron staggered sideways into Harry, just as a second water bomb dropped Ã¢â¬â narrowly missing Hermione, it burst at HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s feet, sending a wave of cold water over his sneakers into his socks. People all around them shrieked and started pushing one another in their efforts to get out of the line of fire. Harry looked up and saw, floating twenty feet above them, Peeves the Poltergeist, a little man in a bell-covered hat and orange bow tie, his wide, malicious face contorted with concentration as he took aim again. Ã¢â¬Å"PEEVES!Ã¢â¬ yelled an angry voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Peeves, come down here at ONCE!Ã¢â¬ Professor McGonagall, Deputy Headmistress and head of Gryffindor House, had come dashing out of the Great Hall; she skidded on the wet floor and grabbed Hermione around the neck to stop herself from falling. Ã¢â¬Å"Ouch Ã¢â¬â sorry, Miss Granger -Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all right, Professor!Ã¢â¬ Hermione gasped, massaging her throat. Ã¢â¬Å"Peeves, get down here NOW!Ã¢â¬ barked Professor McGonagall, straightening her pointed hat and glaring upward through her square-rimmed spectacles. Ã¢â¬Å"Not doing nothing!Ã¢â¬ cackled Peeves, lobbing a water bomb at several fifth-year girls, who screamed and dived into the Great Hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Already wet, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they? Little squirts! Wheeeeeeeeee!Ã¢â¬ And he aimed another bomb at a group of second years who had just arrived. Ã¢â¬Å"I shall call the headmaster!Ã¢â¬ shouted Professor McGonagall. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m warning you, Peeves -Ã¢â¬Å" Peeves stuck out his tongue, threw the last of his water bombs into the air, and zoomed off up the marble staircase, cackling insanely. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, move along, then!Ã¢â¬ said Professor McGonagall sharply to the bedraggled crowd. Ã¢â¬Å"Into the Great Hall, come on!Ã¢â¬ Harry, Ron, and Hermione slipped and slid across the entrance hall and through the double doors on the right, Ron muttering furiously under his breath as he pushed his sopping hair off his face. The Great Hall looked its usual splendid self, decorated for the start-of-term feast. Golden plates and goblets gleamed by the light of hundreds and hundreds of candles, floating over the tables in midair. The four long House tables were packed with chattering students; at the top of the Hall, the staff sat along one side of a fifth table, facing their pupils. It was much warmer in here. Harry, Ron, and Hermione walked past the Slytherins, the Ravenclaws, and the Hufflepuffs, and sat down with the rest of the Gryffindors at the far side of the Hall, next to Nearly Headless Nick, the Gryffindor ghost. Pearly white and semitransparent, Nick was dressed tonight in his usual doublet, but with a particularly large ruff, which served the dual purpose of looking extra-festive, and insuring that his head didnÃ¢â¬â¢t wobble too much on his partially severed neck. Ã¢â¬Å"Good evening,Ã¢â¬ he said, beaming at them. Ã¢â¬Å"Says who?Ã¢â¬ said Harry, taking off his sneakers and emptying them of water. Ã¢â¬Å"Hope they hurry up with the Sorting. IÃ¢â¬â¢m starving.Ã¢â¬ The Sorting of the new students into Houses took place at the start of every school year, but by an unlucky combination of circumstances, Harry hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been present at one since his own. He was quite looking forward to it. Just then, a highly excited, breathless voice called down the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Hiya, Harry!Ã¢â¬ It was Colin Creevey, a third year to whom Harry was something of a hero. Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, Colin,Ã¢â¬ said Harry warily. Ã¢â¬Å"Harry, guess what? Guess what, Harry? My brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s starting! My brother Dennis!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Er Ã¢â¬â good,Ã¢â¬ said Harry. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s really excited!Ã¢â¬ said Colin, practically bouncing up and down in his seat. Ã¢â¬Å"I just hope heÃ¢â¬â¢s in Gryffindor! Keep your fingers crossed, eh, Harry?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Er Ã¢â¬â yeah, all right,Ã¢â¬ said Harry. He turned back to Hermione, Ron, and Nearly Headless Nick. Ã¢â¬Å"Brothers and sisters usually go in the same Houses, donÃ¢â¬â¢t they?Ã¢â¬ he said. He was judging by the Weasleys, all seven of whom had been put into Gryffindor. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh no, not necessarily,Ã¢â¬ said Hermione. Ã¢â¬Å"Parvati PatilÃ¢â¬â¢s twinÃ¢â¬â¢s in Ravenclaw, and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re identical. YouÃ¢â¬â¢d think theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be together, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ Harry looked up at the staff table. There seemed to be rather more empty seats there than usual. Hagrid, of course, was still fighting his way across the lake with the first years; Professor McGonagall was presumably supervising the drying of the entrance hall floor, but there was another empty chair too, and Harry couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t think who else was missing. Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher?Ã¢â¬ said Hermione, who was also looking up at the teachers. They had never yet had a Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher who had lasted more than three terms. HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite by far had been Professor Lupin, who had resigned last year. He looked up and down the staff table. There was definitely no new face there. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get anyone!Ã¢â¬ said Hermione, looking anxious. Harry scanned the table more carefully. Tiny little Professor Flitwick, the Charms teacher, was sitting on a large pile of cushions beside Professor Sprout, the Herbology teacher, whose hat was askew over her flyaway gray hair. She was talking to Professor Sinistra of the Astronomy department. On Professor SinistraÃ¢â¬â¢s other side was the sallow-faced, hook-nosed, greasy-haired Potions master, Snape Ã¢â¬â HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s least favorite person at Hogwarts. You read "Chapter 12 Triwizard Tournament" in category "Essay examples" HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s loathing of Snape was matched only by SnapeÃ¢â¬â¢s hatred of him, a hatred which had, if possible, intensified last year, when Harry had helped Sirius escape right under SnapeÃ¢â¬â¢s overlarge nose Ã¢â¬â Snape and Sirius had been enemies since their own school days. On SnapeÃ¢â¬â¢s other side was an empty seat, which Harry guessed was Professor McGonagallÃ¢â¬â¢s. Next to it, and in the very center of the table, sat Professor Dumbledore, the headmaster, his sweeping silver hair and beard shining in the candlelight, his magnificent deep green robes embroidered with many stars and moons. The tips of DumbledoreÃ¢â¬â¢s long, thin fingers were together and he was resting his chin upon them, staring up at the ceiling through his half-moon spectacles as though lost in thought. Harry glanced up at the ceiling too. It was enchanted to look like the sky outside, and he had never seen it look this stormy. Black and purple clouds were swirling across it, and as another thunderclap sounded outside, a fork of lightning flashed across it. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh hurry up,Ã¢â¬ Ron moaned, beside Harry, Ã¢â¬Å"I could eat a hippogriff.Ã¢â¬ The words were no sooner out of his mouth than the doors of the Great Hall opened and silence fell. Professor McGonagall was leading a long line of first years up to the top of the Hall. If Harry, Ron, and Hermione were wet, it was nothing to how these first years looked. They appeared to have swum across the lake rather than sailed. All of them were shivering with a combination of cold and nerves as they filed along the staff table and came to a halt in a line facing the rest of the school Ã¢â¬â all of them except the smallest of the lot, a boy with mousy hair, who was wrapped in what Harry recognized as HagridÃ¢â¬â¢s moleskin overcoat. The coat was so big for him that it hooked as though he were draped in a furry black circus tent. His small face protruded from over the collar, looking almost painfully excited. When he had lined up with his terrified-looking peers, he caught Colin CreeveyÃ¢â¬â¢s eye, gave a double thumbs-up, and mouthed, I fell in the lake! He looked positiv ely delighted about it. Professor McGonagall now placed a three-legged stool on the ground before the first years and, on top of it, an extremely old, dirty patched wizardÃ¢â¬â¢s hat. The first years stared at it. So did everyone else. For a moment, there was silence. Then a long tear near the brim opened wide like a mouth, and the hat broke into song: A thousand years or more ago, When I was newly sewn,There lived four wizards of renown, Whose names are still well known: Bold Gryffindor, from wild moor, Fair Ravenclaw, from glen, Sweet Hufflepuff, from valley broad, Shrewd Slytherin, from fin. They shared a wish, a hope, a dream, They hatched a daring plan To educate young sorcerers Thus Hogwarts School began. Now each of these four founders Formed their own house, for each Did value different virtues In the ones they had to teach. By Gryffindor, the bravest were Prized far beyond the rest; For Ravenclaw, the cleverest Would always be the best; For Hufflepuff, hard workers were Most worthy of admission; And power-hungry Slytherin Loved those of great ambition. While still alive they did divide Their favorites from the throng, Yet how to pick the worthy ones When they were dead and gone? Twas Gryffindor who found the way, He whipped me off his head The founders put some brains in me So I could choose instead! Now slip me snug about your ears, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never yet been wrong, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a look inside your mind And tell where you belong! The Great Hall rang with applause as the Sorting Hat finished. Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the song it sang when it Sorted us,Ã¢â¬ said Harry, clapping along with everyone else. Ã¢â¬Å"Sings a different one every year,Ã¢â¬ said Ron. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s got to be a pretty boring life, hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t it, being a hat? I suppose it spends all year making up the next one.Ã¢â¬ Professor McGonagall was now unrolling a large scroll of parchment. Ã¢â¬Å"When I call out your name, you will put on the hat and sit on the stool,Ã¢â¬ she told the first years. Ã¢â¬Å"When the hat announces your House, you will go and sit at the appropriate table. Ã¢â¬Å"Ackerley, Stewart!Ã¢â¬ A boy walked forward, visibly trembling from head to foot, picked up the Sorting Hat, put it on, and sat down on the stool. Ã¢â¬Å"RAVENCLAW!Ã¢â¬ shouted the hat. Stewart Ackerley took off the hat and hurried into a seat at the Ravenclaw table, where everyone was applauding him. Harry caught a glimpse of Cho, the Ravenclaw Seeker, cheering Stewart Ackerley as he sat down. For a fleeting second, Harry had a strange desire to join the Ravenclaw table too. Ã¢â¬Å"Baddock, Malcolm!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"SLYTHERIN!Ã¢â¬ The table on the other side of the hall erupted with cheers; Harry could see Malfoy clapping as Baddock joined the Slytherins. Harry wondered whether Baddock knew that Slytherin House had turned out more Dark witches and wizards than any other. Fred and George hissed Malcolm Baddock as he sat down. Ã¢â¬Å"Branstone, Eleanor!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"HUFFLEPUFF!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cauldwell, Owen!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"HUFFLEPUFF!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Creevey, Dennis!Ã¢â¬ Tiny Dennis Creevey staggered forward, tripping over HagridÃ¢â¬â¢s moleskin, just as Hagrid himself sidled into the Hall through a door behind the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ table. About twice as tall as a normal man, and at least three times as broad, Hagrid, with his long, wild, tangled black hair and beard, looked slightly alarming Ã¢â¬â a misleading impression, for Harry, Ron, and Hermione knew Hagrid to possess a very kind nature. He winked at them as he sat down at the end of the staff table and watched Dennis Creevey putting on the Sorting Hat. The rip at the brim opened wide Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"GRYFFINDOR!Ã¢â¬ the hat shouted. Hagrid clapped along with the Gryffindors as Dennis Creevey, beaming widely, took off the hat, placed it back on the stool, and hurried over to join his brother. Ã¢â¬Å"Colin, I fell in!Ã¢â¬ he said shrilly, throwing himself into an empty seat. Ã¢â¬Å"It was brilliant! And something in the water grabbed me and pushed me back in the boat!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cool!Ã¢â¬ said Colin, just as excitedly. Ã¢â¬Å"It was probably the giant squid, Dennis!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wow!Ã¢â¬ said Dennis, as though nobody in their wildest dreams could hope for more than being thrown into a storm-tossed, fathoms-deep lake, and pushed out of it again by a giant sea monster. Ã¢â¬Å"Dennis! Dennis! See that boy down there? The one with the black hair and glasses? See him? Know who he is, Dennis?Ã¢â¬ Harry looked away, staring very hard at the Sorting Hat, now Sorting Emma Dobbs. The Sorting continued; boys and girls with varying degrees of fright on their faces moving one by one to the three-legged stool, the line dwindling slowly as Professor McGonagall passed the LÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh hurry up,Ã¢â¬ Ron moaned, massaging his stomach. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, Ron, the SortingÃ¢â¬â¢s much more important than food,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick as Ã¢â¬Å"Madley, Laura!Ã¢â¬ became a Hufflepuff. Ã¢â¬Å"Course it is, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re dead,Ã¢â¬ snapped Ron. Ã¢â¬Å"I do hope this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s batch of Gryffindors are up to scratch,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick, applauding as Ã¢â¬Å"McDonald, Natalie!Ã¢â¬ joined the Gryffindor table. Ã¢â¬Å"We donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to break our winning streak, do we?Ã¢â¬ Gryffindor had won the Inter-House Championship for the last three years in a row. Ã¢â¬Å"Pritchard, Graham!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"SLYTHERIN!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Quirke, Orla!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"RAVENCLAW!Ã¢â¬ And finally, with Ã¢â¬Å"Whitby, Kevin!Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"HUFFLEPUFF!Ã¢â¬ ), the Sorting ended. Professor McGonagall picked up the hat and the stool and carried them away. Ã¢â¬Å"About time,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, seizing his knife and fork and looking expectantly at his golden plate. Professor Dumbledore had gotten to his feet. He was smiling around at the students, his arms opened wide in welcome. Ã¢â¬Å"I have only two words to say to you,Ã¢â¬ he told them, his deep voice echoing around the Hall. Ã¢â¬Å"Tuck in.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hear, hear!Ã¢â¬ said Harry and Ron loudly as the empty dishes filled magically before their eyes. Nearly Headless Nick watched mournfully as Harry, Ron, and Hermione loaded their own plates. Ã¢â¬Å"Aaah, Ã¢â¬ËatÃ¢â¬â¢s beÃ¢â¬â¢er,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, with his mouth full of mashed potato. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re lucky thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a feast at all tonight, you know,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick. Ã¢â¬Å"There was trouble in the kitchens earlier.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why? WhaÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëappened?Ã¢â¬ said Harry, through a sizable chunk of steak. Ã¢â¬Å"Peeves, of course,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick, shaking his head, which wobbled dangerously. He pulled his ruff a little higher up on his neck. Ã¢â¬Å"The usual argument, you know. He wanted to attend the feast Ã¢â¬â well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s quite out of the question, you know what heÃ¢â¬â¢s like, utterly uncivilized, canÃ¢â¬â¢t see a plate of food without throwing it. We held a ghostÃ¢â¬â¢s council Ã¢â¬â the Fat Friar was all for giving him the chance Ã¢â¬â but most wisely, in my opinion, the Bloody Baron put his foot down.Ã¢â¬ The Bloody Baron was the Slytherin ghost, a gaunt and silent specter covered in silver bloodstains. He was the only person at Hogwarts who could really control Peeves. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, we thought Peeves seemed hacked off about something,Ã¢â¬ said Ron darkly. Ã¢â¬Å"So what did he do in the kitchens?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh the usual,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick, shrugging. Ã¢â¬Å"Wreaked havoc and mayhem. Pots and pans everywhere. Place swimming in soup. Terrified the house-elves out of their wits -Ã¢â¬Å" Clang. Hermione had knocked over her golden goblet. Pumpkin juice spread steadily over the tablecloth, staining several feet of white linen orange, but Hermione paid no attention. Ã¢â¬Å"There are house-elves here?Ã¢â¬ she said, staring, horror-struck, at Nearly Headless Nick. Ã¢â¬Å"Here at Hogwarts?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Certainly,Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick, looking surprised at her reaction. Ã¢â¬Å"The largest number in any dwelling in Britain, I believe. Over a hundred.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen one!Ã¢â¬ said Hermione. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, they hardly ever leave the kitchen by day, do they?Ã¢â¬ said Nearly Headless Nick. Ã¢â¬Å"They come out at night to do a bit of cleaningÃ¢â¬ ¦see to the fires and so onÃ¢â¬ ¦.I mean, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not supposed to see them, are you? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the mark of a good house-elf, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it, that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know itÃ¢â¬â¢s there?Ã¢â¬ Hermione stared at him. Ã¢â¬Å"But they get paid?Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"They get holidays, donÃ¢â¬â¢t they? And Ã¢â¬â and sick leave, and pensions, and everything?Ã¢â¬ Nearly Headless Nick chortled so much that his ruff slipped and his head flopped off, dangling on the inch or so of ghostly skin and muscle that still attached it to his neck. Ã¢â¬Å"Sick leave and pensions?Ã¢â¬ he said, pushing his head back onto his shoulders and securing it once more with his ruff. Ã¢â¬Å"House-elves donÃ¢â¬â¢t want sick leave and pensions!Ã¢â¬ Hermione looked down at her hardly touched plate of food, then put her knife and fork down upon it and pushed it away from her. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh cÃ¢â¬â¢mon, Ã¢â¬ËEr-my-knee,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, accidentally spraying Harry with bits of Yorkshire pudding. Ã¢â¬Å"Oops Ã¢â¬â sorry, Ã¢â¬ËArry -Ã¢â¬ He swallowed. Ã¢â¬Å"You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get them sick leave by starving yourself!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Slave labor,Ã¢â¬ said Hermione, breathing hard through her nose. Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what made this dinner. Slave labor.Ã¢â¬ And she refused to eat another bite. The rain was still drumming heavily against the high, dark glass. Another clap of thunder shook the windows, and the stormy ceiling flashed, illuminating the golden plates as the remains of the first course vanished and were replaced, instantly, with puddings. Ã¢â¬Å"Treacle tart, Hermione!Ã¢â¬ said Ron, deliberately wafting its smell toward her. Ã¢â¬Å"Spotted dick, look! Chocolate gateau!Ã¢â¬ But Hermione gave him a look so reminiscent of Professor McGonagall that he gave up. When the puddings too had been demolished, and the last crumbs had faded off the plates, leaving them sparkling clean, Albus Dumbledore got to his feet again. The buzz of chatter filling the Hall ceased almost at once, so that only the howling wind and pounding rain could be heard. Ã¢â¬Å"So!Ã¢â¬ said Dumbledore, smiling around at them all. Ã¢â¬Å"Now that we are all fed and watered,Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Hmph!Ã¢â¬ said Hermione) Ã¢â¬Å"I must once more ask for your attention, while I give out a few notices. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Filch, the caretaker, has asked me to tell you that the list of objects forbidden inside the castle has this year been extended to include Screaming Yo-yos, Fanged Frisbees, and Ever-Bashing Boomerangs. The full list comprises some four hundred and thirty-seven items, I believe, and can be viewed in Mr. FilchÃ¢â¬â¢s office, if anybody would like to check it.Ã¢â¬ The corners of DumbledoreÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth twitched. He continued, Ã¢â¬Å"As ever, I would like to remind you all that the forest on the grounds is out-of-bounds to students, as is the village of Hogsmeade to all below third year. Ã¢â¬Å"It is also my painful duty to inform you that the Inter-House Quidditch Cup will not take place this year.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Harry gasped. He looked around at Fred and George, his fellow members of the Quidditch team. They were mouthing soundlessly at Dumbledore, apparently too appalled to speak. Dumbhedore went on, Ã¢â¬Å"This is due to an event that will be starting in October, and continuing throughout the school year, taking up much of the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ time and energy Ã¢â¬â but I am sure you will all enjoy it immensely. I have great pleasure in announcing that this year at Hogwarts -Ã¢â¬Å" But at that moment, there was a deafening rumble of thunder and the doors of the Great Hall banged open. A man stood in the doorway, leaning upon a long staff, shrouded in a black traveling cloak. Every head in the Great Hall swiveled toward the stranger, suddenly brightly illuminated by a fork of lightning that flashed across the ceiling. He lowered his hood, shook out a long mane of grizzled, dark gray hair, then began to walk up toward the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ table. A dull clunk echoed through the Hall on his every other step. He reached the end of the top table, turned right, and limped heavily toward Dumbledore. Another flash of lightning crossed the ceiling. Hermione gasped. The lightning had thrown the manÃ¢â¬â¢s face into sharp relief, and it was a face unlike any Harry had ever seen.It looked as though it had been carved out of weathered wood by someone who had only the vaguest idea of what human faces are supposed to look like, and was none too skilled with a chisel. Every inch of skin seemed to be scarred. The mouth looked like a diagonal gash, and a large chunk of the nose was missing. But it was the manÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes that made him frightening. One of them was small, dark, and beady. The other was large, round as a coin, and a vivid, electric blue. The blue eye was moving ceaselessly, without blinking, and was rolling up, down, and from side to side, quite independently of the normal eye Ã¢â¬â and then it rolled right over, pointing into the back of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s head, so that all they could see was whiteness. The stranger reached Dumbledore. He stretched out a hand that was as badly scarred as his face, and Dumbhedore shook it, muttering words Harry couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear. He seemed to be making some inquiry of the stranger, who shook his head unsmilingly and replied in an undertone. Dumbledore nodded and gestured the man to the empty seat on his right-hand side. The stranger sat down, shook his mane of dark gray hair out of his face, pulled a plate of sausages toward him, raised it to what was left of his nose, and sniffed it. He then took a small knife out of his pocket, speared a sausage on the end of it, and began to eat. His normal eye was fixed upon the sausages, but the blue eye was still darting restlessly around in its socket, taking in the Hall and the students. Ã¢â¬Å"May I introduce our new Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher?Ã¢â¬ said Dumbledore brightly into the silence. Ã¢â¬Å"Professor Moody.Ã¢â¬ It was usual for new staff members to be greeted with applause, but none of the staff or students chapped except Dumbledore and Hagrid, who both put their hands together and applauded, but the sound echoed dismally into the silence, and they stopped fairly quickly. Everyone else seemed too transfixed by MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s bizarre appearance to do more than stare at him. Ã¢â¬Å"Moody?Ã¢â¬ Harry muttered to Ron. Ã¢â¬Å"Mad-Eye Moody? The one your dad went to help this morning?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Must be,Ã¢â¬ said Ron in a low, awed voice. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened to him?Ã¢â¬ Hermione whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened to his face?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dunno,Ã¢â¬ Ron whispered back, watching Moody with fascination. Moody seemed totally indifferent to his less-than-warm welcome. Ignoring the jug of pumpkin juice in front of him, he reached again into his traveling cloak, pulled out a hip flask, and took a long draught from it. As he lifted his arm to drink, his cloak was pulled a few inches from the ground, and Harry saw, below the table, several inches of carved wooden leg, ending in a clawed foot. Dumbledore cleared his throat. Ã¢â¬Å"As I was saying,Ã¢â¬ he said, smiling at the sea of students before him, all of whom were still gazing transfixed at Mad-Eye Moody, Ã¢â¬Å"we are to have the honor of hosting a very exciting event over the coming months, an event that has not been held for over a century. It is my very great pleasure to inform you that the Triwizard Tournament will be taking place at Hogwarts this year.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re JOKING!Ã¢â¬ said Fred Weasley loudly. The tension that had filled the Hall ever since MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival suddenly broke. Nearly everyone laughed, and Dumbledore chuckled appreciatively. Ã¢â¬Å"I am not joking, Mr. Weasley,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"though now that you mention it, I did hear an excellent one over the summer about a troll, a hag, and a leprechaun who all go into a bar.Ã¢â¬ Professor McGonagall cleared her throat loudly. Ã¢â¬Å"Er Ã¢â¬â but maybe this is not the timeÃ¢â¬ ¦noÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ said Dumbledore, Ã¢â¬Å"where was I? Ah yes, the Triwizard TournamentÃ¢â¬ ¦well, some of you will not know what this tournament involves, so I hope those who do know will forgive me for giving a short explanation, and allow their attention to wander freely. Ã¢â¬Å"The Triwizard Tournament was first established some seven hundred years ago as a friendly competition between the three largest European schools of wizardry: Hogwarts, Beauxbatons, and Durmstrang. A champion was selected to represent each school, and the three champions competed in three magical tasks. The schools took it in turns to host the tournament once every five years, and it was generally agreed to be a most excellent way of establishing ties between young witches and wizards of different nationalities Ã¢â¬â until, that is, the death toll mounted so high that the tournament was discontinued.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Death toll?Ã¢â¬ Hermione whispered, looking alarmed. But her anxiety did not seem to be shared by the majority of students in the Hall; many of them were whispering excitedly to one another, and Harry himself was far more interested in hearing about the tournament than in worrying about deaths that had happened hundreds of years ago. Ã¢â¬Å"There have been several attempts over the centuries to reinstate the tournament,Ã¢â¬ Dumbledore continued, Ã¢â¬Å"none of which has been very successful. However, our own departments of International Magical Cooperation and Magical Games and Sports have decided the time is ripe for another attempt. We have worked hard over the summer to ensure that this time, no champion will find himself or herself in mortal danger. Ã¢â¬Å"The heads of Beauxbatons and Durmstrang will be arriving with their short-listed contenders in October, and the selection of the three champions will take place at Halloween. An impartial judge will decide which students are most worthy to compete for the Triwizard Cup, the glory of their school, and a thousand Galleons personal prize money.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going for it!Ã¢â¬ Fred Weasley hissed down the table, his face lit with enthusiasm at the prospect of such glory and riches. He was not the only person who seemed to be visualizing himself as the Hogwarts champion. At every House table, Harry could see people either gazing raptly at Dumbledore, or else whispering fervently to their neighbors. But then Dumbledore spoke again, and the Hall quieted once more. Ã¢â¬Å"Eager though I know all of you will be to bring the Triwizard Cup to Hogwarts,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"the heads of the participating schools, along with the Ministry of Magic, have agreed to impose an age restriction on contenders this year. Only students who are of age Ã¢â¬â that is to say, seventeen years or older Ã¢â¬â will be allowed to put forward their names for consideration. This -Ã¢â¬ Dumbledore raised his voice slightly, for several people had made noises of outrage at these words, and the Weasley twins were suddenly looking furious Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"is a measure we feel is necessary, given that the tournament tasks will still be difficult and dangerous, whatever precautions we take, and it is highly unlikely that students below sixth and seventh year will be able to cope with them. I will personally be ensuring that no underage student hoodwinks our impartial judge into making them Hogwarts champion.Ã¢â¬ His light blue eyes twinkled as they flickered over FredÃ¢â¬â¢s and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s mutinous faces. Ã¢â¬Å"I therefore beg you not to waste your time submitting yourself if you are under seventeen. Ã¢â¬Å"The delegations from Beauxbatons and Durmstrang will be arriving in October and remaining with us for the greater part of this year. I know that you will all extend every courtesy to our foreign guests while they are with us, and will give your whole-hearted support to the Hogwarts champion when he or she is selected. And now, it is late, and I know how important it is to you all to be alert and rested as you enter your lessons tomorrow morning. Bedtime! Chop chop!Ã¢â¬ Dumbledore sat down again and turned to talk to Mad-Eye Moody. There was a great scraping and banging as all the students got to their feet and swarmed toward the double doors into the entrance hall. Ã¢â¬Å"They canÃ¢â¬â¢t do that!Ã¢â¬ said George Weasley, who had not joined the crowd moving toward the door, but was standing up and glaring at Dumbledore. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re seventeen in April, why canÃ¢â¬â¢t we have a shot?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not stopping me entering,Ã¢â¬ said Fred stubbornly, also scowling at the top table. Ã¢â¬Å"The championsÃ¢â¬â¢ll get to do all sorts of stuff youÃ¢â¬â¢d never be allowed to do normally. And a thousand Galleons prize money!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, a faraway look on his face. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, a thousand GalleonsÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Come on,Ã¢â¬ said Hermione, Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be the only ones left here if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t move.Ã¢â¬ Harry, Ron, Hermione, Fred, and George set off for the entrance hall, Fred and George debating the ways in which Dumbledore might stop those who were under seventeen from entering the tournament. Ã¢â¬Å"WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s this impartial judge whoÃ¢â¬â¢s going to decide who the champions are?Ã¢â¬ said Harry. Ã¢â¬Å"Dunno,Ã¢â¬ said Fred, Ã¢â¬Å"but itÃ¢â¬â¢s them weÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to fool. I reckon a couple of drops of Aging Potion might do it, GeorgeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Dumbledore knows youÃ¢â¬â¢re not of age, though,Ã¢â¬ said Ron. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s not the one who decides who the champion is, is he?Ã¢â¬ said Fred shrewdly. Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds to me like once this judge knows who wants to enter, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll choose the best from each school and never mind how old they are. DumbledoreÃ¢â¬â¢s trying to stop us giving our names.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"People have died, though!Ã¢â¬ said Hermione in a worried voice as they walked through a door concealed behind a tapestry and started up another, narrower staircase. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ said Fred airily, Ã¢â¬Å"but that was years ago, wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Anyway, whereÃ¢â¬â¢s the fun without a bit of risk? Hey, Ron, what if we find out how to get Ã¢â¬â¢round Dumbledore? Fancy entering?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What dÃ¢â¬â¢you reckon?Ã¢â¬ Ron asked Harry. Ã¢â¬Å"Be cool to enter, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? But I sÃ¢â¬â¢pose they might want someone olderÃ¢â¬ ¦.Dunno if weÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I definitely havenÃ¢â¬â¢t,Ã¢â¬ came NevilleÃ¢â¬â¢s gloomy voice from behind Fred and George. Ã¢â¬Å"I expect my granÃ¢â¬â¢d want me to try, though. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s always going on about how I should be upholding the family honor. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just have to Ã¢â¬â oopsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ NevilleÃ¢â¬â¢s foot had sunk right through a step halfway up the staircase. There were many of these trick stairs at Hogwarts; it was second nature to most of the older students to jump this particular step, but NevilleÃ¢â¬â¢s memory was notoriously poor. Harry and Ron seized him under the armpits and pulled him out, while a suit of armor at the top of the stairs creaked and clanked, laughing wheezily. Ã¢â¬Å"Shut it, you,Ã¢â¬ said Ron, banging down its visor as they passed. They made their way up to the entrance to Gryffindor Tower, which was concealed behind a large portrait of a fat lady in a pink silk dress. Ã¢â¬Å"Password?Ã¢â¬ she said as they approached. Ã¢â¬Å"Balderdash,Ã¢â¬ said George, Ã¢â¬Å"a prefect downstairs told me.Ã¢â¬ The portrait swung forward to reveal a hole in the wall through which they all climbed. A crackling fire warmed the circular common room, which was full of squashy armchairs and tables. Hermione cast the merrily dancing flames a dark look, and Harry distinctly heard her mutter Ã¢â¬Å"Slave laborÃ¢â¬ before bidding them good night and disappearing through the doorway to the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ dormitory. Harry, Ron, and Neville climbed up the last, spiral staircase until they reached their own dormitory, which was situated at the top of the tower. Five four-poster beds with deep crimson hangings stood against the walls, each with its ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s trunk at the foot. Dean and Seamus were already getting into bed; Seamus had pinned his Ireland rosette to his headboard, and Dean had tacked up a poster of Viktor Krum over his bedside table. His old poster of the West Ham football team was pinned right next to it. Ã¢â¬Å"Mental,Ã¢â¬ Ron sighed, shaking his head at the completely stationary soccer players. Harry, Ron, and Neville got into their pajamas and into bed. Someone Ã¢â¬â a house-elf, no doubt Ã¢â¬â had placed warming pans between the sheets. It was extremely comfortable, lying there in bed and listening to the storm raging outside. Ã¢â¬Å"I might go in for it, you know,Ã¢â¬ Ron said sleepily through the darkness, Ã¢â¬Å"if Fred and George find out how toÃ¢â¬ ¦the tournamentÃ¢â¬ ¦.you never know, do you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬â¢pose notÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Harry rolled over in bed, a series of dazzling new pictures forming in his mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eyeÃ¢â¬ ¦.He had hoodwinked the impartial judge into believing he was seventeenÃ¢â¬ ¦.he had become Hogwarts championÃ¢â¬ ¦he was standing on the grounds, his arms raised in triumph in front of the whole school, all of whom were applauding and screamingÃ¢â¬ ¦he had just won the Triwizard Tournament. ChoÃ¢â¬â¢s face stood out particularly clearly in the blurred crowd, her face glowing with admirationÃ¢â¬ ¦. Harry grinned into his pillow, exceptionally glad that Ron couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see what he could. How to cite Chapter 12 Triwizard Tournament, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
The Monetary and Fiscal Policies, although controlled by two different organizations, are the ways that our economy is kept under control. Both policies have their strengths and weaknesses, some situations favoring use of both policies, but most of the time, only one is necessary. The monetary policy is the act of regulating the money supply by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, currently headed by Alan Greenspan. One of the main responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System is to regulate the money supply so as to keep production, prices, and employment stable. The Fed has three tools to manipulate the money supply. They are the reserve requirement, open market operations, and the discount rate. The most powerful tool available is the reserve requirement. The reserve requirement is the percentage of money that the bank is not allowed to loan out. If it is lowered, banks are required to keep less money, and so more money is put out into circulation (theoretically). If it is raised, then banks may have to collect on some loans to meet the new reserve requirement. The tool known as open market operations influences money and credit operations by buying and selling of government securities on the open market. This is used to control overall money supply. If the Fed believes there is not enough money in circulation, then they will buy the securities from member banks. If the Fed believes there is too much money in the economy, they will sell the securities back to the banks. Because it is easier to make gradual changes in the supply of money, open market operations are use more regularly than monetary policy. When member banks want to raise money, they can borrow from Federal Reserve Banks. Just like other loans, there is an interest rate, or a discount rate, the third tool of the monetary policy. If the discount rate is high, then fewer banks will be inclined to borrow, and if it is low, more banks will (theoretically) borrow from the reserve banks. The discount rate is not used as frequently as it was in the past, but it does serve as an indicator to private bankers of the intentions of the Fed to constrict or enlarge the money supply. The monetary policy is a good way to influence the money supply, but it does have its weaknesses. One weakness is that tight money policy works better that loose money policy. Tight money works on bringing money in to stop circulation, but for loose policy to really work, people have to want loans and want to spend money. Another problem is monetary velocity. The number of times per year a dollar changes hands for goods and services is completely independent of the money supply, and can sometimes contradict the efforts of the Fed. The benefits of the monetary system are that it can be enacted immediately with quick results. There are no delays from congress. Second, the Fed uses partisan politics, and so has no ties to any political party, but acts in the best interests of the U.S. Economy. The second way to influence the money supply lies in the hands of the government with the Fiscal Policy. The fiscal policy consists of two main tools. The changing of tax rates, and changing government spending. The main point of fiscal policy is to keep the surplus/deficit swings in the economy to a minimum by reducing inflation and recession. A change in tax rates is usually implemented when inflation is unusually high, and there is a recession with high unemployment. With high inflation, taxes are increased so people have less to spend, thus reducing demand and inflation. During a recession with high unemployment, taxes are lowered to give more people money to spend and thus increasing demand for goods and services, and the economy begins to revive. A change in government spending has a stronger effect on the economy than a change in tax rates. When the government decides to fight a recession it can spend a large amount of money on goods and services, all of which is released into the economy. Despite the effectiveness of the Fiscal policy, it does have drawbacks. The major problems are timing and politics. It is hard to predict inflation and recession, and it can be a long period of time before the situation is even recognized. Because a tax cut can take a year to really take effect, the economy could revive from the recession and the new unnecessary tax cut could cause inflation. Politics are another problem. Unlike the monetary policy run by the partisan Fed, the fiscal policy is
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The human hand essays Without the hand, it would be almost impossible for the world to be the way it is today. The importance of this body part is extremely essential for humans to survive. The hand helps to perform in everyday tasks such as opening a Coke bottle or writing a research paper. This is probably one of the most important body parts of the human body. Without the hand, humans would be unable to make and use the tools which led them into The human hand is made up of 27 different bones. Eight carpal bones which make up the wrist. Five metacarpal bones that make up the palm. And fourteen phalangees which make up the fingers. The Carpal bones are arranged in two rows of four. The row nearest the forearm is called the proximal row. The row nearest the palm is called the distal row. The carpal bones are small, cube-shaped, and each has six sides except for the pisiform, which has five sides. The metacarpal bones are the five long bones of the palm. They are named the first, second, third, fourth and fifth Metacarpal, the first being the one leading to the thumb. The Phalangees are the bones of the fingers. Each finger contains There are twelve different muscles of the hand which are divided into three different groups. The muscles of the thumb make up the Thenar Eminence. The muscles that form the other fingers (also know as baby fingers) are called the Hypothenar Eminence. Twenty muscles from the forearm also control the hands movements. These are the flexors, extensors, supinators, pronators. The flexors help flex the wrist and fingers. The extensors help to extend the wrist and fingers. The supinators assist in turning the palm upward. The pronators help turn the palm downward. There are many different disease that can effect the hand. Some of these include carpal tunnel syndrome, ganglion cysts, dupuytren's contracture, and de quervain's. C ...
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Economic Impact of Terrorism on September 11 The economic impact of terrorism can be calculated from a variety of perspectives. There are direct costs to property and immediate effects on productivity as well as longer-term, indirect costs of responding to terrorism. These costs can be calculated quite minutely; for example, calculations have been made about how much money would be lost in productivity if we all had to stand in line at the airport for an extra hour every time we flew. (Not as much as we think, but the line of reasoning finally provides a rationale for the unreasonable fact that first class passengers wait less. Maybe someone is guessing, rightly, that an hour of their time costs more than an hour of others). Economists and others have tried to calculate the economic impact of terrorism for years in areas beset by attacks, such as Spains Basque region and Israel. In the last several years, most analyses of terrorisms economic costs begin with an interpretation of the costs of the September 11, 2001, attacks. The studies examined are fairly consistent in concluding that the direct costs of the attack were less than feared. The size of the American economy, a speedy response by the Federal Reserve to domestic and global market needs, and Congressional allocations to the private sector helped cushion the blow. The response to the attacks, however, has been costly indeed. Defense and homeland security spending are by far the largest cost of the attack. However, as economist Paul Krugman has asked, should the expenditure on ventures such as the Iraq war really be considered a response to terrorism, or a political program enabled by terrorism. The human cost, of course, is incalculable. Direct Economic Impact of Terrorist Attack The direct cost of the September 11 attack has been estimated at somewhat over $20 billion. Paul Krugman cites a property loss estimate by the Comptroller of the City of New York of $21.8 billion, which he has said is about 0.2 % of the GDP for a year (The Costs of Terrorism: What Do We Know? presented at Princeton University in December 2004). Similarly, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) estimated that the attack cost the private sector $14 billion and the federal government $0.7 billion, while clean-up was estimated at $11 billion. According to R. Barry Johnston and Oana M. Nedelscu in the IMF Working Paper, The Impact of Terrorism on Financial Markets, these numbers are equal to about 1/4 of 1 percent of the US annual GDPapproximately the same result arrived at by Krugman. So, although the numbers by themselves are substantial, to say the least, they could be absorbed by the American economy as a whole. Economic Impact on Financial Markets New Yorks financial markets never opened on September 11 and reopened a week later for the first time on September 17. The immediate costs to the market were due to damage to the communications and other transaction processing systems that had been located in the World Trade Center. Although there were immediate repercussions in world markets, based on the uncertainty engendered by the attacks, recovery was relatively swift. Economic Impact of Defense and Homeland Security Spending Defense and security spending increased by a massive amount in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Glen Hodgson, the Deputy Chief Economist for the EDC (Export Development Canada) explained the costs in 2004: The US alone now spends about US $500 billion annually20 percent of the US federal budgeton departments directly engaged in combating or preventing terrorism, most notably Defense and Homeland Security. The Defense budget increased by one-third, or over $100 billion, from 2001 to 2003 in response to the heightened sense of the threat of terrorism Ã¢â¬â an increase equivalent to 0.7 per cent of US GDP. Expenditures on defense and security are essential for any nation, but of course they also come with an opportunity cost; those resources are not available for other purposes, from spending on health and education to reductions in taxes. A higher risk of terrorism, and the need to combat it, simply raises that opportunity cost. Krugman asks, regarding this expenditure: The obvious, but perhaps unanswerable, question is to what extent this additional security spending should be viewed as a response to terrorism, as opposed to a political program enabled by terrorism. Not to put too fine a point on it: the Iraq war, which seems likely to absorb about 0.6 percent of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP for the foreseeable future, clearly wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have happened without 9/11. But was it in any meaningful sense a response to 9/11? Economic Impact on Supply Chains Economists also assess terrorisms impact on global supply chains, the sequence of steps that suppliers of goods take to get products from one area to another. These steps can become extremely costly in terms of time and money when extra layers of security at ports and land borders are added to the process. According to the OECD, higher transportation costs could have an especially negative effect on emerging economies that have benefited from a decrease in costs in the last decade and thus on countries ability to combat poverty. It does not seem entirely far-fetched to imagine that in some instances, barriers meant to safeguard populations from terrorism would actually amplify the risk: poor countries that might have to slow exports because of the cost of security measures are at a greater risk because of the effects of poverty, of political destabilization, and of radicalization among their populations.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Strategic Human Resource Management - Essay Example Today most of the Organisations are found to be engaged in preparation to ensure their existence. As it was seen in the case of Air National which got privatized by the government of Britain as a result of which the company faced all of the sudden increase in the competitive forces due to other private companies in the airline industry. The company also lost the political strengths and influences which acted as substantial support to Air National (Bratton & Gold, 2001). During this adverse business condition the organization initially worked for its survival but parallel to that it also considered its growth which is achieved through the strategic approaches. To meet the technological challenges raised by the business environment Organisations could adopt approaches of SHRM under which they can develop their workforce by providing substantial training and skill development support (Delbridge, Gratton, & Johnson, 2006).As strategic HRM interventions, organizations should design their recruitment policy in a way that best suits crisis control. Organisations should try and find skilled and competent candidates for critical positions (Anonymous-c, n.d.) so that additional cost of training and development can be saved. The management should also ensure that the employee base it is left with post-downsizing consist of the most competent, efficient and talented employees. As these employees are rich with experience, targeted programs will be sufficient for their need-based training and development.